acromion: The lateral triangular projection of the spine of the scapula that forms the point of the shoulder and articulates with the clavicle
anterior: Toward the front or in front of
aplasia: A lack of development of an organ or tissue or of the cellular products from an organ or tissue. Compare hypoplasia
areola: The darkened area around the nipple of a breast
articlulate: Jointed, or having joints where separation may occur naturally.
asymmetry: Lacking symmetry, or proportion between the parts of a thing, especially lack of bilateral symmetry.
axilla: The underarm, or armpit
axillary hair: Hair growth under the arm
bilateral: Having two sides or pertaining to both sides. Compare unilateral
brachydactyly: Abnormal shortness of the fingers.
clavicle: Also called the collar bone, it articulates with the shoulder on one end (at the acromion process of the scapula) and the sternum (breast bone) on the other.
congenital: Present at birth
contralateral: Pertaining to the opposite side
dermoids: Resembling skin; skinlike
developmental disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders.
distal: adj. describes a feature anatomically located farther away from, or in the direction away from, the central part of the body or point of attachment or origin. Usually used in the description of limb bones. For example, the ankle is distal of the knee
dysostoses: Defective bone formation involving individual bones, singly or in combination.
electromyography: A test which measures muscle response to nerve stimulation. Used to evaluate muscle weakness and to determine if the weakness is related to the muscles themselves or a problem with the nerves that supply the muscles.
embryogenesis: The processes leading to the development of an embryo from egg to completion of the embryonic stage.
embryonic: Undeveloped or related to the embryo
familial: Occurring in families. An inherited disorder or trait.
glenoid: Having the form of a smooth and shallow depression; socketlike; applied to several articular surfaces of bone; as, the glenoid cavity, or fossa, of the scapula, in which the head of the humerus articulates.
gluteal: Pertaining to, or in the region of, the glutaeus, the great muscle of the buttock
Goldenhar syndrome: Mandibulofacial dysostosis with congenital eyelid dermoids.
heart murmur: A sound generated by disturbed blood flow through the heart manifested as "turbulence". Turbulence is an irregular condition of motion caused by local vibrations of the wall of a vessel or heart chamber. Heart murmurs are usually detectable in ventricular outflow obstruction and in various types of heart valve disease and are differentiated from heart sounds, a physiological concept.
hemifacial microsomia: significant undergrowth of the muscles supplied by the facial nerve
hydrocephaly: An increased quantity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inside the brain that can result in increased pressure. Often the result of a disturbance (obstruction) in the normal CSF circulation or the over-production of CSF.
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iliac artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
ilium n., abbrev. il: top hip bone to which the sacral vertebrae attach
ipsilateral: on the same side
lateral adj. in the direction away from, or farther from, a midline bisecting the animal. For example, the hindleg is lateral of the pelvis
leukemia: An acute or chronic disease of unknown cause in man and other warm blooded animals that involves the blood forming organs, is characterised by an abnormal increase in the number of leucocytes in the tissues of the body with or without a corresponding increase of those in the circulating blood and is classified according of the type leucocyte most prominently involved.
lymphoblastic leukemia: associated with hyperplasia and overactivity of the lymphoid tissue. There are increased numbers of circulating malignant lymphocytes and lymphoblasts.
medial adj. in the direction of, or closer to, a midline bisecting the animal. For example, the pelvis is medial of the hindleg
midphalangeal hypoplasia: a criterion for Poland's anomaly
morphological: Of, pertaining to, or according to, the principles of morphology, a study of the configuration or the structure of animals and plants
neural tube defect: Abnormal development during embryonic life of the neural tube, the structure which gives rise to the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), resulting in anencephaly (absence of the cranial vault and absence of most or all of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain) and spina bifida/meningomyelocele (open spina with exposure and protusion of the spinal cord). The risk of ntds can be decreased by the mother eating ample folic acid during pregnancy.
omo-: A combining form used in anatomy to indicate connection with, or relation to, the shoulder or the scapula.
pectoralis major muscle: Large fan shaped muscle of the upper chest wall. It flexes and rotates the arm in the shoulder joint and pulls the shoulder in.
pectoralis minor: A thin triangle shaped muscle of the upper chest wall under pectoralis major. It rotates the shoulder blade (scapula) and draws it down and forward and raises the upper ribs in forced breathing.
phalanges: The finger bones (the singular is phalanx). There are three phalanges in each digit, except the thumb which only has two.
Poland's Syndrome: A syndrome which is characterised by symbrachydactyly and aplasia of the sternal head of pectoralis major.
posterior: Situated in back of or in the back part of or affecting the back or dorsal surface of the body. In lower animals, it refers to the caudal end of the body
proband: The family member through whom a family medically comes to light. The proband might for example be a baby with down syndrome. The proband may also be called the index case, propositus (if male) or proposita (if female).
process: A change from one state to another
propositus: The family member through whom a family medically comes to light. Also called the proband or index case.
proximal adj. describes a feature anatomically located closer to, or in the direction of, the central part of the body or point of attachment or origin. Usually used in the description of limb bones. For example, the knee is proximal of the ankle
radius n. abbrev. ra the innermost bone of the foreleg/forearm
renal: Pertaining to the kidney, nephric
SASDS: subclavian artery supply disruption sequence
scapula: A large, flat, triangular bone that forms the posterior portion of the shoulder. It articulates with the clavicle (at the acromion process) and the humerus (at the glenoid).
serratus anterior muscle: ORIGIN: Outer surface and upper border of ribs 1-8 INSERTION: Medial angle vertebral border and inferior angle of scapula ACTION: Rotates scapula, raising point of shoulder and draws scapula forward
shoulder: The joint, or the region of the joint, by which the fore limb is connected with the body or with the shoulder girdle; the projection formed by the bones and muscles about that joint.
Sprengel shoulder: an elevated hypoplastic scapula with omovertebral bone
sterno-costal: Of or pertaining to the sternum; in the region of the sternum.
subclavian artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.
subclavian: Situated under the clavicle, or collar bone; as, the subclavian arteries
symbrachydactyly: short, webbed fingers
syndactyly: Webbing between the digits of the hands or feet.
syndrome: a set of signs and symptoms that tend to occur together and which reflect the presence of a particular disease or an increased chance of developing a particular disease.
For example, the constellation of numbness of the neck, arms, and back with headache, dizziness, profuse sweating, and palpitations after eating Chinese food laden with monosodium glutamate (MSG) strongly suggests the Chinese restaurant syndrome. Other examples include the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the achoo syndrome, the sick building syndrome, the stiff baby syndrome, and many, many more.
The word "syndrome" has long been popular in medicine and, more recently, outside medicine (as in the "China syndrome"). The word comes from the Greek "syn-" meaning together + "dramein" meaning to run = to run together, or go together.
thoracic: Pertaining to or affecting the chest.
topically disparate: Unequal; dissimilar; separate on the surface
transverse: Lying or being across, or in a crosswise direction; athwart; often opposed to longitudinal.
trapezius: ORIGIN: External occipital protuberance & Medial part superior nuchal line of occipital bone & Ligamentum nuchae & Spinous process C7, T1-T12 vertebrae & Supraspinous ligament INSERTION: Posterior border lateral clavicle & Medial margin acromion & Posterior border spine of scapula & Tubercle on spine of scapula ACTION: Rotates scapula to raise point of shoulder, adducts scapula, upper part raises scapula, lower part lowers and pulls scapula down, upper part draws head to same side and turns face to opposite side, two sides together draw head back
ulna n. abbrev. ul the outermost bone of the foreleg/forearm
unilateral: affecting one side of the body
ventral adj. describes a feature anatomically located on, closer to, or in the direction of the belly. For example, the manus is ventral of the scapula
vertebral artery: Paired arteries which supply the muscles of the neck, spinal cord and cerebellum.
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